Bibliography and Suggestions for Further Reading

Bennett, H. L. (2018). African Kings and Black Slaves: Sovereignty and Dispossession in the Early Modern Atlantic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bethencourt, F. (2014). Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blackburn, R. (1997). The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. London: Verso.

Brahm, F. & Rosenhaft E. (2016). Slavery Hinterland: Transatlantic Slavery and Continental Europe, 1680-1850. London: Boydell and Brewer.

Cañizares-Esguerra, J. (2018) Entangled Empires: The Anglo-Iberian Atlantic 1500-1830. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Carrera, M. M. (2003). Imagining Identity in New Spain: Race Lineage and the Colonial Body in Portraiture and Casta Paintings. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.

Fracchia, C. (2019). Black but Human: Slavery and the Visual Arts in Habsburg Spain, 1480-1700. Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Fromont, C. (2014). The Art of Conversion: Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.

Goslinga, C. C. (1971). The Dutch in the Caribbean and in the Guianas. Maastricht: Van Gorcum.

Green, T. (2019). A Fistful of Shells; West Africa from the Rise of the Slave Trade to the Age of Revolution. London: Allen Lane.

Habib, I. (2007). Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500-1677. Imprints of the Invisible. London: Routledge.Hall, K. F. (1995). Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Hendriks M. & Parker, P.  (1994).  Women, ‘Race’ and Writing in the Early Modern Period. London: Routledge.

Ireton, C. (2017). "'They are Blacks of the Cast of Black Christians': Old Christian Black Blood in the Sixteenth-and Early Seventeenth-Century Iberian Atlantic."  Hispanic American Historical Review, 97, 579-612.  doi 10.1215/00182168-4214303

Iyengar, S. (2005). Shades of Difference: Mythologies of Skin Colour in Early Modern England. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.

Johnson, C. (2011). Cultural Hierarchy in Sixteenth-Century Europe: The Ottomans and Mexicans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson C. L and Molineux C (2018). "Putting Europe in Its Place: Material Traces, Interdisciplinarity, and the Recuperation of the Early Modern Extra-European Subject." Radical History Review, 130, 62-99.

Kaplan, Paul. (1979). The Image of the Black in Western Art, Vol. II: From the Early Christian Era to the "Age of Discovery". Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Kolfin E. & E. Runia, E. (2020).  Black in Rembrandt’s Time. Amsterdam: The Rembrandt House Museum.

Kaufmann, M. (2017). Black Tudors: The Untold Story. London: Oneworld.

Lowe, K. (2013) "Visible Lives: Black Gondoliers and Other Black Africans in Renaissance Venice." Renaissance Quarterly, 66, 412-452.

Lowe, K. & Earle, W. (2005). Black Africans in Renaissance Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Otele, O. (2020). African Europeans: An Untold History. London: Hurst.

Parker, P., Erickson P. & Hulse C. (2000). Early Modern Visual Culture: Representation, Race and Empire in Renaissance England. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.

Ponte, M. (2020). "Black in Amsterdam around 1650." In E. Kolfin & E. Runia (Eds.) Black in Rembrandt’s Time. (pp. 44-59). Amsterdam: The Rembrandt House Museum.

Potma, J. M (1990). The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rowe, E.  (2019). Black Saints in Early Modern Global Catholicism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spicer, J. (2013). Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum.

Thomas, H. (1998). The Slave Trade; The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. Oxford & Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Tiffany, T. (2008). "Light, Darkness, and African Salvation: Velàzquez’s Supper at Emmaus." Art History, 31, 33-65.